Students will explore historical documents and online resources that
provide background information related to Albert
M. Lea and the historical context of 1835.
Students will explore two important historical documents written by Albert
M. Lea describing his travels through eastern Iowa in 1835. Information
found in these documents will provide a starting point for further online
exploration of the historical context of 1835.
Tips For Teachers
- Following the expedition of 1835, Albert M. Lea wrote two major documents.
First, in the fall of 1835 he composed a memoir
describing the day-to-day experiences of the summer's 1100- mile adventure
through eastern Iowa. Second, in 1836, he wrote a more analytical piece
entitled Notes on the Wisconsin Territory; Particularly
with Reference to the Iowa District, or the Black Hawk Purchase.
- Start by having students explore these documents written by Albert
M. Lea. Students will find these documents linked within the page Who
Was Albert M. Lea?.
- First, direct students to Lea's memoir. Because
Lea's party was looking for a suitable site for a new fort, his observations
focus on descriptions of the prairie, the woods and land formations.
Both wood-land and prairie, thus far, are exceedingly fertile,
the soil being a black loam based upon clay. The trees are usually
oak and hickory, and the woods are free from under-growth; and no
stone is to be found, except siliceous pebbles and granitic boulders
Beyond Lake Hahawa, about 10 miles, we crossed a river, called
by the Indians, Ioway;
and as the name, Ioway, is irrevocably
fixed on that part of the river below the junction, it is proposed
to give that name to the larger branch, and to call the smaller
branch Buffalo river, form the game found upon it. Where we crossed
it, it is about 30 yds wide, 4 ft deep, and clear, though in freshet;
has a gentle current, gravelly bottom covered with moss, low banks,
and but little timber bordering on it. It is probably navigable
for small boats, as far as the mouth of the Otter creek
After passing this river, we found an almost continuous succession
of swamps, for 14 miles, the prairie being scarcely interrupted
by a tree. Traversing then a few miles of dryer ground, we came
to a high ridge, where we found a Sioux Fort, made by excavating
a series of holes, large enough to contain several men, and arranged
in an elliptical form, outside of which, when used, skins are stretched
on stakes, fixed in the ground, to intercept the view and the missiles
of the enemy
Limestone bluffs present themselves occasionally on either
bank. No falls or rapids, are known in the river;
are luxuriant, and consist of walnut, ash, elm, oak, maple, &
c. The soil is remarkably fertile, and but little of the timbered
land, except near the mouth, is flooded in times of freshets
- Second, have students skim Excerpts from Iowa
District of the Wisconsin Territory written by Lea in 1836.
Note that this piece is organized topically and includes information
related to eastern Iowa's climate, soil, plant life, rivers, land formations
and animal life. For example:
The Climate is such as would be naturally expected in this
latitude. The thermometer does not range more widely here than in
similar latitudes east of the Allegheny mountains; nor perhaps as
much so, as in those districts beyond the influence of the sea-breeze,
from some quarter of our broad prairies almost as refreshing as
that from the ocean. We are exempt, too, from the effects of the
easterly winds, so chilling and so annoying along the Atlantic sea-board;
but in lieu of them, we have frequently could blasts from the prairies,
sufficiently annoying to the traveler, when the mercury is at zero
The larger GAME will, of course, soon disappear from the
settlement; but at present there is a great deal of deer, some bear,
and some buffalo within reach. Turkies, grouse, and ducks will long
be abundant; and of Fish there can never be any scarcity. Every
stream is filled with them; and among them may be found the pike,
the pickerel, the catfish, the trout, and many other varieties.
Immense quantities are taken about the several Rapids, where they
may be easily speared
Online Student Expeditions
- If Albert Lea had been able
to write a letter to his fiancé while exploring eastern Iowa
in 1835, what might he have told her about his trip? Based upon the
readings by Lea, how might he have described the Iowa prairie?
- Have students compose a letter from Albert M. Lea to his fiancé
Miss Ellen Shoemaker of Baltimore, Maryland, whom he married on May
- Have students explore History
of the U.S. Postal Service to identify how his letter would have
reached Miss Shoemaker in Baltimore.
- Lea mentions several Indian names while describing eastern Iowa in
1835. Have students go to the American
Memory collection to further explore and investigate the background
information regarding these Indian names: Opanoose [Appanoose], Keokuk,
- Lea was exploring the area in eastern Iowa acquired by the United
States government following the Black
Hawk War of 1832 and the subsequent Black Hawk purchase. Have students
write a memoir from the perspective of Chief
Black Hawk or another important Indian leader. How would they have
viewed Lea's expedition of 1835 differently from that of Albert M. Lea?